Heather Joseph has served as the Executive Director of the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) since 2005, broadening access to the results of scholarly research through enabling open access publishing, archiving and policies on a local, national and international level. Prior to SPARC, Heather spent 15 years as a publisher in both commercial and not-for-profit publishing organizations. She served as the publishing director at the American Society for Cell Biology, which became the first journal to commit its full content to the NIH's pioneering open repository, PubMed Central, and subsequently served on the National Advisory Committee for the project. Heather serves on the Board of Directors of numerous not-for-profit organizations, including the Public Library of Science. She is a frequent speaker and writer on scholarly communications in general, and on open access in particular.